The negotiations resulted in four main parts of the agreement; The agreement on agriculture itself; concessions and commitments that members should make with regard to market access, national support and export subsidies; Agreement on health and plant health measures; and the ministerial decision on the least developed developing countries and net food-importing countries. Agreement on the interpretation of Article XXVIII – changes to the GATT calendars. agreement on new procedures for negotiating compensation in the event of changes or withdrawal of customs commitments, including the creation of a new bargaining right for the country for which the product concerned accounts for the highest share of its exports. The aim is to increase the capacity of small and developing countries to participate in the negotiations. The agreement provides for consultations on countervailing measures applicable to safeguard measures. If consultations do not succeed, affected members may withdraw concessions or other equivalent commitments from the 1994 GATT. However, such a measure is not permitted for the first three years of the protection measure if it is in accordance with the provisions of the agreement and is taken due to an absolute increase in imports. With regard to geographical indications, the agreement stipulates that all parties must release funds to prevent the use of undue indications to the consumer as to the origin of the products and any use that would constitute unfair competition. A higher level of protection is provided for the geographical indications of spirits and wines, which are protected even in the absence of a risk of misleading the public about the actual origin. Exceptions are possible for denominations that have already become general terms, but any country using such an exception must be prepared to negotiate in order to protect the geographical indications concerned. Further negotiations are also planned for the establishment of a multilateral system for notification and registration of geographical indications for wines.
The agreement requires mandatory notification of all non-compliant TRIMs and their elimination within two years for developed countries, within five years for developing countries and within seven years for least developed countries. It sets up a TRIM committee to oversee, among other things, the implementation of these commitments. The agreement also plans to consider at a later date whether it should be supplemented by provisions relating to investment and competition policy in the broadest sense. If a dispute is not resolved through consultations, the DSU requires the creation of a panel at the latest at the meeting of the dispute resolution body at the end of the meeting at which an application is made, unless the DSB makes a consensus decision against the establishment. The DSU also sets specific rules and deadlines for defining the mandate and composition of working groups. The standard provisions apply, unless the parties agree to specific conditions within 20 days of the panel`s establishment. And if the parties do not reach an agreement on the composition of the proceeding within the same 20 days, this can be decided by the Director General. Panels are usually made up of three people with similar backgrounds and experience from countries not involved in the litigation.
The secretariat will maintain a list of experts who meet the criteria. The agreement provides for three categories of grants. First, it considers that the following subsidies are „prohibited“: these, neither in law nor as another condition, for export performance; and that these, whether alone or as one of several other conditions, depend on the use of imported goods in the domestic market. Prohibited subsidies are subject to new dispute resolution procedures. One of the main features is the acceleration of the timing of the dispute resolution authority`s actions and, if it is found that the subsidy is effectively prohibited, it must be withdrawn immediately.